Tuesday, October 1, 2019

After School Programs Essay -- Education, Constructivism

This chapter provides a review of the literature related to after school programs. The literature review is organized into the following categories: History of After School Programs, Need for After School Programs, Effectiveness of After School Programs, Frequency and Duration, and Middle School After School Programs. This section also reviews the theoretical framework for this research. Theoretical Framework Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own knowledge of the world we live in (Au & Carrol, 1996). Learning is simply the process of adjusting what we already know to accommodate new experiences. Constructivism can be traced to the eighteenth century and the work of Giambattista (Bhattacharya & Han, 2001). Bhattacharya and Han maintained that humans are able to understand only what they themselves have constructed. Many philosophers and educators have worked with these ideas, but the first to develop a clear idea of what constructivism consists of were Jean Piaget and John Dewey. Von Glaserfield (1990) acknowledged that constructivism means â€Å"knowledge is not passively received.† Piaget (1973) stated that students are not just â€Å"empty heads† that can be filled with facts from packaged curriculum that is given out my teachers. Constructivism does not depend on a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curriculum customized to the students’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes real world problem solving, experiments, reasoning and communication (Au & Carrol , 1997). Constructivism gives students the power to make connections, reformulate ideas, and reach conclusions (Brewer & Daane, 2002). After school programs often focus on teac... ...ved in 21st Century Community Learning Centers. The evaluation revealed that programs had difficulty recruiting and retaining young teens, and those that did participate attended inconsistently. The middle school students were less likely to participate in academic classes and more likely to be involved in recreation activities. Beth Miller (2003) stated that after school programs serving middle school children, must keep students engaged in the program by a variety of popular and engaging activities. She further noted that after-school programs are successful when participants have motivation to achieve academically. In summary, middle school learners benefit from frequent participation in quality after school programs that increase engagement in learning, provide a variety of recreational activities, and build key skills necessary for academic success.

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